Fondation Napoléon in English

Fondation Napoléon in English The Fondation Napoléon? It's the two great Napoleons and their relations, the history of France and Europe in the 19th century on all media platforms.

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▶️ Video | Historians Professors Beatrice de Graaf, Alex Mikaberidze and Charles Esdaile join the self-declared "baby-fa...
23/11/2021
The Politics of the Napoleonic Wars

▶️ Video | Historians Professors Beatrice de Graaf, Alex Mikaberidze and Charles Esdaile join the self-declared "baby-faced Napoleon Nerd" (Zack White) to discuss how integral politics was to the waging of war during this period, covering everything from diplomacy to how countries were run. (1h49m).

Professors Beatrice de Graaf, Alex Mikaberidze and Charles Esdaile join me to discuss how integral politics was to the waging of war during this period, cove...

🇨🇿 Archeology | Napoleonic-era mass grave discovered beneath cellars in Brno! 👉 Analysis of 12 skeletons found in a cell...
22/11/2021
Napoleonic-Era Mass Grave Discovered Beneath Cellars in Brno

🇨🇿 Archeology | Napoleonic-era mass grave discovered beneath cellars in Brno!
👉 Analysis of 12 skeletons found in a cellar in Brno in South-East Czech Republic has revealed details such as age, s*x, origins, and causes of death, leading to the conclusion that these men were soldiers at the Battle of the three Emperors which took place at the nearby Austerlitz (Slavkov u Brno). The report was published in the journal Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences: https://praguemorning.cz/napoleonic-era-mass-grave-discovered-beneath-cellars-in-brno/

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📅 #OTD | On 21 November, 1806, Napoleon decreed, from his Palace in Berlin, a blockade of the British Isles and forbade ...
21/11/2021

📅 #OTD | On 21 November, 1806, Napoleon decreed, from his Palace in Berlin, a blockade of the British Isles and forbade all British goods and commerce entering the continent : https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/images/caricature-prime-minister-of-england-lord-grenville-reading-the-imperial-decree-to-king-george-and-his-council-declaring-the-british-isles-to-be-in-a-state-of-blockade/

📅 #OTD | On 21 November, 1806, Napoleon decreed, from his Palace in Berlin, a blockade of the British Isles and forbade all British goods and commerce entering the continent : https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/images/caricature-prime-minister-of-england-lord-grenville-reading-the-imperial-decree-to-king-george-and-his-council-declaring-the-british-isles-to-be-in-a-state-of-blockade/

🥁 Re-enactment | The 216th anniversary of the Battle of Austerlitz (December 2nd 1805), also known as the Battle of the ...
20/11/2021
Austerlitz 2021 – 216th anniversary of the battle of the three emperors | Austerlitz.org | EN

🥁 Re-enactment | The 216th anniversary of the Battle of Austerlitz (December 2nd 1805), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors will be commemorated during a 5-day re-enactment event with approximately 1000 participants from 15 countries, 60 horses and 15 guns.

We are preparing the 216th anniversary of the Battle of Austerlitz (December 2nd, 1805), the Battle of the Three Emperors – Austerlitz 2021, which will take place on December 1st-5th. We expect participation of approximately 1000 participants from 15 countries, 60 horses, 15 guns, and a complete p...

🖥 Online talk | Tomorrow! Join Beatrice de Graaf live on YouTube for a free talk as part of the History Symposium on 20 ...
19/11/2021
After Napoleon | www.historysymposium.com

🖥 Online talk | Tomorrow! Join Beatrice de Graaf live on YouTube for a free talk as part of the History Symposium on 20 November (7:50 PM – 9:30 PM CET): "After Napoleon: How the Allied Council tried to secure Europe after 1815"

What happened after the peace was concluded, first in 1814 and then in 1815? How does a ‘sortie de guerre’ and a military occupation transform into a regime change? After twenty-six years of unprecedented revolutionary upheavals and endless fighting, the victorious powers craved stability after ...

🏛 #2021AnnéeNapoléon - Exhibition | Shortly before 1900, the Austro-Hungarian painter Oscar Rex (1857-1929) created a se...
18/11/2021

🏛 #2021AnnéeNapoléon - Exhibition | Shortly before 1900, the Austro-Hungarian painter Oscar Rex (1857-1929) created a series of some thirty paintings depicting key episodes in Napoleon’s career. 👉 This exhibition organised by our partner, the Musée national du château de Malmaison - (site officiel), is a chance to discover several works by the artist recently acquired by the museum, thus fulfilling one of its missions the conservation of the Napoleonic legend: https://fondationnapoleon.org/en/activities-and-services/telling-history/napoleon-year-2021/2021-annee-napoleon-the-musee-national-de-malmaison-et-bois-preau-the-chateau-de-malmaison/

🏛 #2021AnnéeNapoléon - Exhibition | Shortly before 1900, the Austro-Hungarian painter Oscar Rex (1857-1929) created a series of some thirty paintings depicting key episodes in Napoleon’s career. 👉 This exhibition organised by our partner, the Musée national du château de Malmaison - (site officiel), is a chance to discover several works by the artist recently acquired by the museum, thus fulfilling one of its missions the conservation of the Napoleonic legend: https://fondationnapoleon.org/en/activities-and-services/telling-history/napoleon-year-2021/2021-annee-napoleon-the-musee-national-de-malmaison-et-bois-preau-the-chateau-de-malmaison/

[📅 Éphéméride] Le #17novembre 1869 l'impératrice Eugénie inaugurait le canal de Suez sur le navire L’Aigle, accompagnée ...
17/11/2021

[📅 Éphéméride] Le #17novembre 1869 l'impératrice Eugénie inaugurait le canal de Suez sur le navire L’Aigle, accompagnée de Ferdinand de Lesseps et des administrateurs du canal.

👉 Un "rêve oriental" peint par le pré-impressionniste et illustrateur reconnu d’œuvres de Jules Verne ou Alexandre Dumas, collaborateur de l’hebdomadaire "Le Tour du Monde", Édouard Riou (1833-1900), à la demande de Ferdinand de Lesseps : https://www.napoleon.org/…/ceremonie-dinauguration-du-canal…

Image : © Photo RMN-Grand Palais - D. Arnaudet.

[📅 Éphéméride] Le #17novembre 1869 l'impératrice Eugénie inaugurait le canal de Suez sur le navire L’Aigle, accompagnée de Ferdinand de Lesseps et des administrateurs du canal.

👉 Un "rêve oriental" peint par le pré-impressionniste et illustrateur reconnu d’œuvres de Jules Verne ou Alexandre Dumas, collaborateur de l’hebdomadaire "Le Tour du Monde", Édouard Riou (1833-1900), à la demande de Ferdinand de Lesseps : https://www.napoleon.org/…/ceremonie-dinauguration-du-canal…

Image : © Photo RMN-Grand Palais - D. Arnaudet.

🖼 This month's image | You may recognise this month’s image as it was the inspiration for our #2021AnnéeNapoléon banner....
16/11/2021

🖼 This month's image | You may recognise this month’s image as it was the inspiration for our #2021AnnéeNapoléon banner. The source is a very small black and white photograph representing a now-lost painting by the artist Horace Vernet, a fervent Napoleonic enthusiast, whose speciality was military or historical scenes albeit with a large dose of romanticism thrown in:

🔎 In July 1821, on learning of the Emperor’s death in exile on St Helena two months earlier, Vernet imagined this dramatic scene depicting the faithful followers surrounded by the debris of a shipwreck (perhaps evoking the erstwhile glorious Empire) burying their master in a modest grave (unmarked apart from the famous hat and sword), as a cloud-born host of military heroes gone before prepare to welcome the prisoner's now unchained soul to another realm, that of the legend.

🖼 This month's image | You may recognise this month’s image as it was the inspiration for our #2021AnnéeNapoléon banner. The source is a very small black and white photograph representing a now-lost painting by the artist Horace Vernet, a fervent Napoleonic enthusiast, whose speciality was military or historical scenes albeit with a large dose of romanticism thrown in:

🔎 In July 1821, on learning of the Emperor’s death in exile on St Helena two months earlier, Vernet imagined this dramatic scene depicting the faithful followers surrounded by the debris of a shipwreck (perhaps evoking the erstwhile glorious Empire) burying their master in a modest grave (unmarked apart from the famous hat and sword), as a cloud-born host of military heroes gone before prepare to welcome the prisoner's now unchained soul to another realm, that of the legend.

🎙 Talk | The next talk at the Fondation Napoléon in Paris will be given on 23 November by Jacques-Olivier Boudon, histor...
15/11/2021

🎙 Talk | The next talk at the Fondation Napoléon in Paris will be given on 23 November by Jacques-Olivier Boudon, historian, professor at the Sorbonne, and president of the Institut Napoléon, based on his 2013 book Napoleon et les Femmes. Sign-up from 15 November (today!): https://www.napoleon.org/magazine/evenements/cercle-detudes-2021-annee-napoleon-napoleon-et-les-femmes/
ℹ️ All our talks are free but subject to reservation.

🎙 Talk | The next talk at the Fondation Napoléon in Paris will be given on 23 November by Jacques-Olivier Boudon, historian, professor at the Sorbonne, and president of the Institut Napoléon, based on his 2013 book Napoleon et les Femmes. Sign-up from 15 November (today!): https://www.napoleon.org/magazine/evenements/cercle-detudes-2021-annee-napoleon-napoleon-et-les-femmes/
ℹ️ All our talks are free but subject to reservation.

⚫️ Obituary | Donald D. Horward (1933-2021)It is with great sadness that we learned of the passing of the American histo...
14/11/2021

⚫️ Obituary | Donald D. Horward (1933-2021)
It is with great sadness that we learned of the passing of the American historian and Chevallier de la Légion d’Honneur, Donald D. Horward.

Don was a wide-ranging scholar of Napoleon and the French Revolution with a particular passion for the great French Marshal André Masséna – indeed he even founded a Masséna Society. His PhD research on the marshal in the early 1960s led to a lifelong close friendship with Victor-André Masséna, Prince d’Essling, the current president of the Fondation Napoléon and descendant of the Napoleonic hero. On gaining his doctorate, Don joined the faculty at Florida State where with prescient leadership he founded the Institute on Napoleon and the French Revolution, established the remarkable Strozier Library, and astutely attracted funding for two permanent professorships, one on Napoleon and the other on the French Revolution.

His tireless work supervising more than one hundred doctoral theses over a period of forty years established the Institute as the leading centre for Napoleonic Studies in the English-speaking world. Indeed, Don was like a father to all his PhD students, labouring tirelessly over the multiple draughts of their dissertations thereby creating today’s leaders in contemporary English-language Napoleonic research. He leaves a vast hole in the Napoleonic world which will be hard to fill.

Don was awarded numerous honours (both in his home country and internationally) for his work on the History of the Napoleonic period, including notably, in 2002, being made Chevallier de la Légion d’Honneur, by the French government.

The Prince d’Essling (President), Thierry Lentz (Director), and Peter Hicks (International Affairs Manager), not to mention the whole team at the Fondation Napoléon would like to express their deepest condolences to Annabel his widow.

Read a tribute to Donald D. Horward, by Dr. Michael V. Leggiere, Professor of History, Deputy Director of the Military History Center University of North Texas.

⚫️ Obituary | Donald D. Horward (1933-2021)
It is with great sadness that we learned of the passing of the American historian and Chevallier de la Légion d’Honneur, Donald D. Horward.

Don was a wide-ranging scholar of Napoleon and the French Revolution with a particular passion for the great French Marshal André Masséna – indeed he even founded a Masséna Society. His PhD research on the marshal in the early 1960s led to a lifelong close friendship with Victor-André Masséna, Prince d’Essling, the current president of the Fondation Napoléon and descendant of the Napoleonic hero. On gaining his doctorate, Don joined the faculty at Florida State where with prescient leadership he founded the Institute on Napoleon and the French Revolution, established the remarkable Strozier Library, and astutely attracted funding for two permanent professorships, one on Napoleon and the other on the French Revolution.

His tireless work supervising more than one hundred doctoral theses over a period of forty years established the Institute as the leading centre for Napoleonic Studies in the English-speaking world. Indeed, Don was like a father to all his PhD students, labouring tirelessly over the multiple draughts of their dissertations thereby creating today’s leaders in contemporary English-language Napoleonic research. He leaves a vast hole in the Napoleonic world which will be hard to fill.

Don was awarded numerous honours (both in his home country and internationally) for his work on the History of the Napoleonic period, including notably, in 2002, being made Chevallier de la Légion d’Honneur, by the French government.

The Prince d’Essling (President), Thierry Lentz (Director), and Peter Hicks (International Affairs Manager), not to mention the whole team at the Fondation Napoléon would like to express their deepest condolences to Annabel his widow.

Read a tribute to Donald D. Horward, by Dr. Michael V. Leggiere, Professor of History, Deputy Director of the Military History Center University of North Texas.

🔘 Talking Point with Amélie Marineau-Pelletier | "The myth of a Joan of Arc embodying, for French minds, heroism, courag...
13/11/2021

🔘 Talking Point with Amélie Marineau-Pelletier | "The myth of a Joan of Arc embodying, for French minds, heroism, courage and freedom, was largely fashioned during the First and Second Empire": https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/articles/talking-point-with-amelie-marineau-pelletier-joan-of-arc-heroine-of-the-french-nation/

🔘 Talking Point with Amélie Marineau-Pelletier | "The myth of a Joan of Arc embodying, for French minds, heroism, courage and freedom, was largely fashioned during the First and Second Empire": https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/articles/talking-point-with-amelie-marineau-pelletier-joan-of-arc-heroine-of-the-french-nation/

📖 #FridayReading - This month's book | Carole Divall here offers a fascinating account of Wellington’s ‘perfect’ campaig...
12/11/2021

📖 #FridayReading - This month's book | Carole Divall here offers a fascinating account of Wellington’s ‘perfect’ campaign from January to June 1813 delving deep into memorial literature and basing her story on those written by the men who actually took part in the different affairs that led up to Vitoria 👉https://www.napoleon.org/en/magazine/publications/wellington-and-the-vitoria-campaign-1813-never-a-finer-army/

📖 #FridayReading - This month's book | Carole Divall here offers a fascinating account of Wellington’s ‘perfect’ campaign from January to June 1813 delving deep into memorial literature and basing her story on those written by the men who actually took part in the different affairs that led up to Vitoria 👉https://www.napoleon.org/en/magazine/publications/wellington-and-the-vitoria-campaign-1813-never-a-finer-army/

📷 Remembrance Day | Empress Eugenie visiting the British wounded at Farnborough.#ThursdayPhoto#Armistice
11/11/2021

📷 Remembrance Day | Empress Eugenie visiting the British wounded at Farnborough.
#ThursdayPhoto
#Armistice

📷 Remembrance Day | Empress Eugenie visiting the British wounded at Farnborough.
#ThursdayPhoto
#Armistice

🕵️‍♀️ #OTD |  222 years ago today: The coup d'état of 18 #Brumaire An VIII.👉 We’ve put together for you a CLOSE-UP with ...
09/11/2021

🕵️‍♀️ #OTD | 222 years ago today: The coup d'état of 18 #Brumaire An VIII.
👉 We’ve put together for you a CLOSE-UP with some exclusive content which takes a look at the events of 18/19 Brumaire from various perspectives:
https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/close-up/the-coup-detat-of-18-and-19-brumaire-an-viii-9-and-10-november1799/

🕵️‍♀️ #OTD | 222 years ago today: The coup d'état of 18 #Brumaire An VIII.
👉 We’ve put together for you a CLOSE-UP with some exclusive content which takes a look at the events of 18/19 Brumaire from various perspectives:
https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/close-up/the-coup-detat-of-18-and-19-brumaire-an-viii-9-and-10-november1799/

🍄 Napoleonic pleasures | It's mushroom season! #DidYouKnow that an imperial decree (1 May, 1809) ordained that "it is fo...
07/11/2021

🍄 Napoleonic pleasures | It's mushroom season! #DidYouKnow that an imperial decree (1 May, 1809) ordained that "it is forbidden to sell, peddle or proclaim the sale of mushrooms on the public"! While remaining cautious, you can now try this recipe of Mushroom purée from the Napoleonic era: https://www.napoleon.org/en/magazine/napoleonic-pleasures/mushroom-puree/

🍄 Napoleonic pleasures | It's mushroom season! #DidYouKnow that an imperial decree (1 May, 1809) ordained that "it is forbidden to sell, peddle or proclaim the sale of mushrooms on the public"! While remaining cautious, you can now try this recipe of Mushroom purée from the Napoleonic era: https://www.napoleon.org/en/magazine/napoleonic-pleasures/mushroom-puree/

[🎙 Conférence] Fallait-il ou pas commémorer le bicentenaire de la mort de Napoléon ?On vous laisse imaginer la réponse d...
03/11/2021
2021 Année Napoléon >Metz (ville) - Fondation Napoléon

[🎙 Conférence] Fallait-il ou pas commémorer le bicentenaire de la mort de Napoléon ?
On vous laisse imaginer la réponse de Thierry Lentz à cette question, qu'il détaillera demain soir dans les Salons de l’Hôtel de Ville de Metz France : https://fondationnapoleon.org/activites-et-services/histoire/2021-annee-napoleon/2021-annee-napoleon-metz-ville/

Dans le cadre du bicentenaire de la mort de Napoléon, la ville de Metz (57) organise plusieurs évènements qui mettent en valeur les relations entre

💻 Online Conference | TONIGHT! At 6pm: "Tra memoria e mito: la figura di Napoleone da un impero all'altro" (Between memo...
03/11/2021

💻 Online Conference | TONIGHT! At 6pm: "Tra memoria e mito: la figura di Napoleone da un impero all'altro" (Between memory and myth: the figure of Napoleon from one empire to another) 👉 Registration is required: [email protected]
ℹ️ More: https://fondationnapoleon.org/activites-et-services/histoire/2021-annee-napoleon/2021-annee-napoleon-comitato-di-bologna-dellistituto-di-storia-del-risorgimento/

💻 Online Conference | TONIGHT! At 6pm: "Tra memoria e mito: la figura di Napoleone da un impero all'altro" (Between memory and myth: the figure of Napoleon from one empire to another) 👉 Registration is required: [email protected]
ℹ️ More: https://fondationnapoleon.org/activites-et-services/histoire/2021-annee-napoleon/2021-annee-napoleon-comitato-di-bologna-dellistituto-di-storia-del-risorgimento/

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▶️ Video | Historians Professors Beatrice de Graaf, Alex Mikaberidze and Charles Esdaile join the self-declared "baby-faced Napoleon Nerd" (Zack White) to discuss how integral politics was to the waging of war during this period, covering everything from diplomacy to how countries were run. (1h49m).
🇨🇿 Archeology | Napoleonic-era mass grave discovered beneath cellars in Brno! 👉 Analysis of 12 skeletons found in a cellar in Brno in South-East Czech Republic has revealed details such as age, s*x, origins, and causes of death, leading to the conclusion that these men were soldiers at the Battle of the three Emperors which took place at the nearby Austerlitz (Slavkov u Brno). The report was published in the journal Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences: https://praguemorning.cz/napoleonic-era-mass-grave-discovered-beneath-cellars-in-brno/
📅 #OTD | On 21 November, 1806, Napoleon decreed, from his Palace in Berlin, a blockade of the British Isles and forbade all British goods and commerce entering the continent : https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/images/caricature-prime-minister-of-england-lord-grenville-reading-the-imperial-decree-to-king-george-and-his-council-declaring-the-british-isles-to-be-in-a-state-of-blockade/
🥁 Re-enactment | The 216th anniversary of the Battle of Austerlitz (December 2nd 1805), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors will be commemorated during a 5-day re-enactment event with approximately 1000 participants from 15 countries, 60 horses and 15 guns.
🖥 Online talk | Tomorrow! Join Beatrice de Graaf live on YouTube for a free talk as part of the History Symposium on 20 November (7:50 PM – 9:30 PM CET): "After Napoleon: How the Allied Council tried to secure Europe after 1815"
🏛 #2021AnnéeNapoléon - Exhibition | Shortly before 1900, the Austro-Hungarian painter Oscar Rex (1857-1929) created a series of some thirty paintings depicting key episodes in Napoleon’s career. 👉 This exhibition organised by our partner, the Musée national du château de Malmaison - (site officiel), is a chance to discover several works by the artist recently acquired by the museum, thus fulfilling one of its missions the conservation of the Napoleonic legend: https://fondationnapoleon.org/en/activities-and-services/telling-history/napoleon-year-2021/2021-annee-napoleon-the-musee-national-de-malmaison-et-bois-preau-the-chateau-de-malmaison/
[📅 Éphéméride] Le #17novembre 1869 l'impératrice Eugénie inaugurait le canal de Suez sur le navire L’Aigle, accompagnée de Ferdinand de Lesseps et des administrateurs du canal. 👉 Un "rêve oriental" peint par le pré-impressionniste et illustrateur reconnu d’œuvres de Jules Verne ou Alexandre Dumas, collaborateur de l’hebdomadaire "Le Tour du Monde", Édouard Riou (1833-1900), à la demande de Ferdinand de Lesseps : https://www.napoleon.org/…/ceremonie-dinauguration-du-canal… Image : © Photo RMN-Grand Palais - D. Arnaudet.
🖼 This month's image | You may recognise this month’s image as it was the inspiration for our #2021AnnéeNapoléon banner. The source is a very small black and white photograph representing a now-lost painting by the artist Horace Vernet, a fervent Napoleonic enthusiast, whose speciality was military or historical scenes albeit with a large dose of romanticism thrown in: 🔎 In July 1821, on learning of the Emperor’s death in exile on St Helena two months earlier, Vernet imagined this dramatic scene depicting the faithful followers surrounded by the debris of a shipwreck (perhaps evoking the erstwhile glorious Empire) burying their master in a modest grave (unmarked apart from the famous hat and sword), as a cloud-born host of military heroes gone before prepare to welcome the prisoner's now unchained soul to another realm, that of the legend.
🎙 Talk | The next talk at the Fondation Napoléon in Paris will be given on 23 November by Jacques-Olivier Boudon, historian, professor at the Sorbonne, and president of the Institut Napoléon, based on his 2013 book Napoleon et les Femmes. Sign-up from 15 November (today!): https://www.napoleon.org/magazine/evenements/cercle-detudes-2021-annee-napoleon-napoleon-et-les-femmes/ ℹ️ All our talks are free but subject to reservation.
⚫️ Obituary | Donald D. Horward (1933-2021) It is with great sadness that we learned of the passing of the American historian and Chevallier de la Légion d’Honneur, Donald D. Horward. Don was a wide-ranging scholar of Napoleon and the French Revolution with a particular passion for the great French Marshal André Masséna – indeed he even founded a Masséna Society. His PhD research on the marshal in the early 1960s led to a lifelong close friendship with Victor-André Masséna, Prince d’Essling, the current president of the Fondation Napoléon and descendant of the Napoleonic hero. On gaining his doctorate, Don joined the faculty at Florida State where with prescient leadership he founded the Institute on Napoleon and the French Revolution, established the remarkable Strozier Library, and astutely attracted funding for two permanent professorships, one on Napoleon and the other on the French Revolution. His tireless work supervising more than one hundred doctoral theses over a period of forty years established the Institute as the leading centre for Napoleonic Studies in the English-speaking world. Indeed, Don was like a father to all his PhD students, labouring tirelessly over the multiple draughts of their dissertations thereby creating today’s leaders in contemporary English-language Napoleonic research. He leaves a vast hole in the Napoleonic world which will be hard to fill. Don was awarded numerous honours (both in his home country and internationally) for his work on the History of the Napoleonic period, including notably, in 2002, being made Chevallier de la Légion d’Honneur, by the French government. The Prince d’Essling (President), Thierry Lentz (Director), and Peter Hicks (International Affairs Manager), not to mention the whole team at the Fondation Napoléon would like to express their deepest condolences to Annabel his widow. Read a tribute to Donald D. Horward, by Dr. Michael V. Leggiere, Professor of History, Deputy Director of the Military History Center University of North Texas.
🔘 Talking Point with Amélie Marineau-Pelletier | "The myth of a Joan of Arc embodying, for French minds, heroism, courage and freedom, was largely fashioned during the First and Second Empire": https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/articles/talking-point-with-amelie-marineau-pelletier-joan-of-arc-heroine-of-the-french-nation/
📖 #FridayReading - This month's book | Carole Divall here offers a fascinating account of Wellington’s ‘perfect’ campaign from January to June 1813 delving deep into memorial literature and basing her story on those written by the men who actually took part in the different affairs that led up to Vitoria 👉https://www.napoleon.org/en/magazine/publications/wellington-and-the-vitoria-campaign-1813-never-a-finer-army/