Nuclear Knowledges

Nuclear Knowledges Premier programme universitaire français de recherche indépendant sur le phénomène nucléaire

#Article "European Nuclear Weapons. Zombie debates and nuclear realities"After Brexit, France will be the only nuclear w...
29/12/2020

#Article "European Nuclear Weapons. Zombie debates and nuclear realities"
After Brexit, France will be the only nuclear weapons possessing State in the European Union. In this context, it is important to assess the idea of European nuclear weapons and the French contribution to such europeanization.
Kjolv Egeland and Benoît Pelopidas do so in this new article out in open access:
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09662839.2020.1855147?needAccess=true
The article assesses the case for European nuclear weapons in terms of security, strategic autonomy, futurity and good democratic governance and finds it faulty on all counts.
The authors provide the results of two large scale surveys of 9 European countries in 2018 and 2019.
They identify the zombie nature of this debate in which, since the 1950s, the idea of European nuclear weapons has never won the policy debate but never died either.
They explain this endless resurgence by three factors:
1) the internal contradictions of the case for Euro-nukes, which can be used as resources to revive it;
2) the reversification of fundamental categories of the nuclear conversation whose specialized meaning is the opposite of its ordinary meaning;
3) and the involvement of think tanks and governments who have an interest in mobilizing that idea for other debates.

Today is #InternationalDayAgainstNuclearTests. New survey results published by Benoît Pelopidas with Kjølv Egeland in th...
30/08/2020
What Europeans believe about Hiroshima and Nagasaki—and why it matters - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Today is #InternationalDayAgainstNuclearTests. New survey results published by Benoît Pelopidas with Kjølv Egeland in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists show that the memory of two explosions, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, is correlated with Europeans' views of desirable nuclear weapons policy today.

▶️ https://thebulletin.org/2020/08/what-europeans-believe-about-hiroshima-and-nagasaki-and-why-it-matters/

There’s a correlation between belief that the bombings were necessary to end the war and opposition to nuclear disarmament today.

Today is #InternationalDayAgainstNuclearTests. To take seriously all possibilities of nuclear explosions, the limits of ...
30/08/2020
Power, luck, and scholarly responsibility at the end of the world(s) | International Theory | Cambridge Core

Today is #InternationalDayAgainstNuclearTests. To take seriously all possibilities of nuclear explosions, the limits of weapons safety and of our control over them deserve careful study. It's called luck: https://wapo.st/33JMkln

Such study is doable. Here is how:
▶️ Read "Power, luck, and scholarly responsibility at the end of the world(s)" at https://bit.ly/2XGL5zg
▶️ Read "The unbearable lightness of luck: Three sources of
overconfidence in the manageability of nuclear crises" at https://bit.ly/2PDCzwS

Power, luck, and scholarly responsibility at the end of the world(s) - Benoît Pelopidas

30/08/2020
Global nuclear arsenal 2020

Today is #InternationalDayAgainstNuclearTests. If the concern is possibilities of nuclear weapons explosions in general, considering material nuclear vulnerabilities is needed. Here is a 60s summary of what they are (with subtitles in 18 languages) 🔽

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeZGBXSYCmo

This is based on the following research on nuclear vulnerabilities, from the Nuclear Knowledges program at Sciences Po, CERI: European knowledge levels and a...

#Tribune | Une part bien plus importante des sondés ayant affirmé que les bombardements atomiques ont écourté la guerre ...
13/08/2020
Les ombres de Hiroshima et de Nagasaki en Europe

#Tribune | Une part bien plus importante des sondés ayant affirmé que les bombardements atomiques ont écourté la guerre de manière significative, étaient nécessaires pour conduire le Japon à la capitulation ou ont sauvé la vie de soldats américains affirmait que l’abolition des armes nucléaires rendrait le monde moins sûr que la part de ceux qui acceptaient d’autres interprétations.

Ces éléments nous suggèrent qu’en situation de vulnérabilité nucléaire, il est essentiel d’enseigner aux futurs citoyens l’histoire du bombardement de Nagasaki, et pas seulement de celui de Hiroshima, à la lumière des dernières avancées de la connaissance afin qu’ils puissent former leurs préférences de la manière la plus informée possible.

Retrouvez la dernière tribune de Benoît Pelopidas et Kjølv Egeland publiée au Journal La Croix ▶️ https://bit.ly/2XRg3VJ

Pour plus d'informations sur les résultats présentés dans l'article ▶️ https://bit.ly/2XxWnGg

Benoît Pelopidas et Kjolv Egeland (1) nous montrent que les préférences des citoyens européens en matière de politique nucléaire sont liés à leur interprétation des bombardements d’Hiroshima et de Nagasaki.

Have we avoided unwanted nuclear explosions, and nuclear war, because we have adequately managed and controlled weapons ...
11/08/2020
Perspective | The reason we haven’t had nuclear disasters isn’t careful planning. It’s luck.

Have we avoided unwanted nuclear explosions, and nuclear war, because we have adequately managed and controlled weapons and crises … or because we have been lucky?

▶️ Read the full op-ed written by Benoît Pelopidas and Alex Wellerstein for the Washington Post: https://wapo.st/33JMkln

Luck, in this context, isn’t some supernatural property or a quality people have or don’t have. It is about the places and times where nobody is in control: 🔎 https://bit.ly/2XGL5zg

The alarming role of good fortune in the history of nuclear weapons.

🎧 #Podcast | Benoît Pelopidas était l'invité de Julie Gacon dans le Magazine du week-end sur France Culture, pour mettre...
10/08/2020
Dettes publiques : obsession comptable ou question démocratique ? / Nucléaire militaire : a-t-on trop vite oublié Hiroshima ?

🎧 #Podcast | Benoît Pelopidas était l'invité de Julie Gacon dans le Magazine du week-end sur France Culture, pour mettre en perspective l'actualité à la lumière de l'anniversaire de Nagasaki.

L'entretien commence à 43:00 ▶️ https://bit.ly/3inp1lp

Retrouvez les résultats des études menées par l'équipe de Nuclear Knowledges évoqués en début d'entretien ci-dessous:
🔎 Nagasaki’s shadows: European citizens facing nuclear weapons, The Conversation : https://bit.ly/33MKi3E
🔎 What Europeans believe about Hiroshima and Nagasaki—and why it matters, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists : https://bit.ly/2XxWnGg

Pour une discussion plus approfondie sur le rôle de la chance, (re)découvrez les publications scientifiques suivantes:
🔎 Power, luck, and scholarly responsibility at the end of the world(s): https://bit.ly/2XGL5zg
🔎 The unbearable lightness of luck: Three sources of overconfidence in the manageability of nuclear crises: https://bit.ly/2PDCzwS
🔎 A Bet Portrayed as a Certainty: Reassessing the Added Deterrent Value of Nuclear Weapons: https://bit.ly/2DIN3s6

Quel regard politique porter sur les dettes publiques qui explosent partout dans le monde en raison de la crise sanitaire ? / 75 ans après Hiroshima et alors que 15 000 têtes nucléaires existent aujourd'hui dans le monde, peut-on vraiment choisir d'être moins vulnérables face aux armes nuc[...]

🔴 (3/3) It is now August 9 in Japan. 75 years ago, Kokura lucked out and the atomic bomb ended up hitting #Nagasaki. Und...
08/08/2020

🔴 (3/3) It is now August 9 in Japan. 75 years ago, Kokura lucked out and the atomic bomb ended up hitting #Nagasaki.

Understanding the role of luck in absence of unwanted nuclear explosions is crucial to understand the choices we are making for the future. Scholarship and most policy discussions at best pay tribute to luck but end up thinking/writing as though it played no role and/or was impossible to account for.

▶️ In this newly published article in International Security, Benoît Pelopidas offers a distinctive definition of luck, explains how to distinguish it from control and how to avoid a survivability bias: https://bit.ly/2XGL5zg

🔴 (2/3) It is now August 9 in Japan. 75 years ago, Kokura lucked out and the atomic bomb ended up hitting #Nagasaki. Und...
08/08/2020

🔴 (2/3) It is now August 9 in Japan. 75 years ago, Kokura lucked out and the atomic bomb ended up hitting #Nagasaki.

Understanding the role of luck in absence of unwanted nuclear explosions since then is crucial to understand the choices we are making for the future. Most prominents policy and military leaders including William J. Perry, Robert McNamara, General Lee Butler have argued that it played a role. Being blind to the role of luck would create overconfidence, which increases danger and has been documented 🔽

🔎 Read the full text of "The unbearable lightness of luck: Three sources of overconfidence in the manageability of nuclear crises" here: https://bit.ly/2PDCzwS

🔎 Read the full text of "A Bet Portrayed as a Certainty: Reassessing the Added Deterrent Value of Nuclear Weapons" here: https://bit.ly/2DIN3s6

🔴 (1/3)  It is now August 9 in Japan. 75 years ago, Kokura lucked out and the atomic bomb ended up hitting #Nagasaki. Ne...
08/08/2020
Nagasaki's shadows: European citizens facing nuclear weapons

🔴 (1/3) It is now August 9 in Japan. 75 years ago, Kokura lucked out and the atomic bomb ended up hitting #Nagasaki. New survey data from 2018 and 2019 consistently shows that European citizens are much less likely to remember Nagasaki than Hiroshima 🔽

🔎 Check out "Nagasaki’s shadows: European citizens facing nuclear weapons", published by The Conversation, at https://bit.ly/33MKi3E

🔎 And "What Europeans believe about Hiroshima and Nagasaki—and why it matters", published by the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, at https://bit.ly/2XxWnGg

With the risk of a nuclear conflict seeming higher than ever, how much do EU citizens really know about nuclear weapons and their use? A new survey provides striking answers.

🔴 75 years ago, the city of #Hiroshima was bombed. Clarity on nuclear vulnerabilities is needed. Here are our contributi...
06/08/2020
Taking nuclear vulnerabilities seriously

🔴 75 years ago, the city of #Hiroshima was bombed. Clarity on nuclear vulnerabilities is needed.

Here are our contributions in English (4/4)
▶️ An op. ed. by Benoît Pelopidas and M.V. Ramana in The Hindu on Taking nuclear vulnerabilities seriously : https://bit.ly/2DHHo5C

All nuclear weapon states have admitted to the possibility that deterrence could fail

🔴 75 years ago, the city of #Hiroshima was bombed. Clarity on nuclear vulnerabilities is needed. Here are our contributi...
06/08/2020
Who stole disarmament? History and nostalgia in nuclear abolition discourse

🔴 75 years ago, the city of #Hiroshima was bombed. Clarity on nuclear vulnerabilities is needed.

Here are our contributions in English (3/4)
▶️ A piece by Kjølv Egeland showing the importance of assessing past successes and failures in nuclear disarmament and the trap of nostalgia ▶️ https://academic.oup.com/ia/article-abstract/96/5/1/5875277?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Abstract. Influential members of the disarmament community have in recent years maintained that further progress towards the international community's nominall

🔴 75 years ago, the city of #Hiroshima was bombed. Clarity on nuclear vulnerabilities is needed. Here are our contributi...
06/08/2020
What Europeans believe about Hiroshima and Nagasaki—and why it matters - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

🔴 75 years ago, the city of #Hiroshima was bombed. Clarity on nuclear vulnerabilities is needed.

Here are our contributions in English (2/4)
▶️ A piece by Benoît Pelopidas and Kjølv Egeland showing how interpretations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are correlated to attitudes regarding nuclear weapons policy today : https://bit.ly/2XxWnGg

There’s a correlation between belief that the bombings were necessary to end the war and opposition to nuclear disarmament today.

06/08/2020
Global nuclear arsenal 2020

🔴 75 years ago, the city of #Hiroshima was bombed. Clarity on nuclear vulnerabilities is needed.

Here are our contributions in English (1/4)
▶️ This 60s video for citizens as well as educators focuses on orders of magnitude and vulnerabilities, with subtitles in 17 languages : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeZGBXSYCmo

This is based on the following research on nuclear vulnerabilities, from the Nuclear Knowledges program at Sciences Po, CERI: European knowledge levels and a...

06/08/2020
spire.sciencespo.fr

🔴 Il y a 75 ans, la ville d'#Hiroshima était rasée par une bombe atomique. Il est temps de prendre les vulnérabilités nucléaires au sérieux dans toutes leurs dimensions.

Retour sur nos contributions en français (5/5)
▶️ Considérer que les 75 dernières années de politique nucléaire ont produit le meilleur des mondes nucléaires possibles est un diagnostic fréquent mais qui mérite d'être nommé. C'est du panglossisme, qui reste à analyser et critiquer. Un début : https://bit.ly/3gyF4vX

06/08/2020
Global nuclear arsenal 2020

🔴 Il y a 75 ans, la ville d'#Hiroshima était rasée par une bombe atomique. Il est temps de prendre les vulnérabilités nucléaires au sérieux dans toutes leurs dimensions.

Retour sur nos contributions en français (4/5)
▶️ Retrouvez notre vidéo de 60 secondes qui montre la capacité de destruction de l'arsenal nucléaire aujourd'hui, avec des sous-titres disponibes en Français et 16 autres langues : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeZGBXSYCmo

This is based on the following research on nuclear vulnerabilities, from the Nuclear Knowledges program at Sciences Po, CERI: European knowledge levels and a...

🔴 Il y a 75 ans, la ville d'#Hiroshima était rasée par une bombe atomique. Il est temps de prendre les vulnérabilités nu...
06/08/2020
Tribune libre la chaîne de transmission de l’ordre de frappe ne permet pas aux citoyens de s’y opposer. On ne peut pas choisir de ne pas être affecté par les politiques d’armement nucléaire

🔴 Il y a 75 ans, la ville d'#Hiroshima était rasée par une bombe atomique. Il est temps de prendre les vulnérabilités nucléaires au sérieux dans toutes leurs dimensions.

Retour sur nos contributions en français (3/5)
▶️ Retrouvez notre tribune libre dans L'humanité sur comment citoyens et résidents sont affectés par les politiques nucléaires : https://bit.ly/3kpizfF

Benoît Pelopidas

🔴 Il y a 75 ans, la ville d'#Hiroshima était rasée par une bombe atomique. Il est temps de prendre les vulnérabilités nu...
06/08/2020
Les ombres d’Hiroshima : les Européens face aux armes nucléaires

🔴 Il y a 75 ans, la ville d'#Hiroshima était rasée par une bombe atomique. Il est temps de prendre les vulnérabilités nucléaires au sérieux dans toutes leurs dimensions.

Retour sur nos contributions en français (2/5)
▶️ The Conversation republie nos résultats de sondage sur les connaissances des Européens sur Hiroshima et la planète nucléaire : https://bit.ly/33BccQb

La première enquête sur les connaissances et attitudes des Européens eu égard aux questions nucléaires révèle des biais surprenants en France, porteurs d'importantes implications pour la démocratie.

🔴 Il y a 75 ans, la ville d'#Hiroshima était rasée par une bombe atomique. Il est temps de prendre les vulnérabilités nu...
06/08/2020
Prendre les vulnérabilités nucléaires au sérieux

🔴 Il y a 75 ans, la ville d'#Hiroshima était rasée par une bombe atomique. Il est temps de prendre les vulnérabilités nucléaires au sérieux dans toutes leurs dimensions.

Retour sur nos contributions en français (1/5)
▶️ Retrouvez l'article de Benoît Pelopidas dans Libération articulant les différentes formes de vulnérabilités nucléaires à partir de la recherche conduite par l'équipe : https://bit.ly/3a4FvMq

Soixante-quinze ans après les bombardements atomiques d'Hiroshima et de Nagasaki, les arsenaux déployés par certains Etats conservent une capacité de destruction planétaire. Un contrôle démocratique de la course à l'armement s'impose.

05/08/2020
Global nuclear arsenal 2020

It is now August 6 in Japan. This short video on nuclear vulnerabilities contributes to commemorating the bombing of Hiroshima 75 years ago.

We have prepared subtitles in 17 languages.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeZGBXSYCmo

This is based on the following research on nuclear vulnerabilities, from the Nuclear Knowledges program at Sciences Po, CERI: European knowledge levels and a...

#Article | By overselling past progress towards the elimination of nuclear arms, the nostalgic narrative of a lost aboli...
05/08/2020
Who stole disarmament? History and nostalgia in nuclear abolition discourse

#Article | By overselling past progress towards the elimination of nuclear arms, the nostalgic narrative of a lost abolitionist consensus is used to rationalize the existing nuclear order and delegitimize the pursuit of new approaches to elimination such as the movement to stigmatize nuclear weapons and the practice of nuclear deterrence.

Read the latest piece by Kjølv Egeland published in International Affairs on the history of nuclear disarmament and the role of nostalgia in nuclear weapons policy ▶️ https://academic.oup.com/ia/article-abstract/96/5/1/5875277?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Abstract. Influential members of the disarmament community have in recent years maintained that further progress towards the international community's nominall

#Article | Did the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki shorten the war, and were they necessary to force the Japan...
04/08/2020
What Europeans believe about Hiroshima and Nagasaki—and why it matters - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

#Article | Did the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki shorten the war, and were they necessary to force the Japanese surrender? Although historians have long challenged this narrative as wrong or misleading, a significant number of Europeans still believe it.

Read the latest piece by Benoît Pelopidas and Kjolv Egeland published in The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists on European attitudes vis-à-vis Hiroshima and Nagasaki and how they relate to attitudes towards nuclear disarmament ▶️ https://thebulletin.org/2020/08/what-europeans-believe-about-hiroshima-and-nagasaki-and-why-it-matters/

There’s a correlation between belief that the bombings were necessary to end the war and opposition to nuclear disarmament today.

#Article | Polls in the United States and nine allied countries in Europe and Asia show that public support for a nuclea...
22/07/2020
Donald Trump Could Lose the Election by Authorizing a New Nuclear Weapons Test

#Article | Polls in the United States and nine allied countries in Europe and Asia show that public support for a nuclear test is very low. If the Trump administration conducts a test, then it shouldn’t expect backing from Americans or its closest U.S. partners.

Read Stephen Herzog, Benoît Pelopidas, Fabrício Fialho and Jonathon Baron's latest on the National Interest ▶️ https://nationalinterest.org/feature/donald-trump-could-lose-election-authorizing-new-nuclear-weapons-test-163328

Polls in the United States and nine allied countries in Europe and Asia show that public support for a nuclear test is very low. If the Trump administration conducts a test, then it shouldn’t expect backing from Americans or its closest U.S. partners.

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